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Operating System

Chapter 1: Introduction to Operating System 

— Definition of Operating System.

— Evolution of operating systems – simple batch systems, multi-programmed batch systems, time sharing systems.

— Functions of an operating system

— Characteristics of Operating System

— Single user and multi-user operating systems

Open-source and closed-source operating systems.

Important Questions with their Answers of “Introduction to operating system”

— MCQs and Fill in Blanks

— Short term Questions

— Long Term Questions


Chapter 2: Process Overview

Definition of process, process states, process life cycle,

Process Control Block (PCB),

Process Scheduling – Scheduling queues,

Schedulers (short term, medium term and long term).

Dispatcher.

Context Switch.

Important Questions with their Answers of “Process Overview”

— MCQs and Fill in blanks

Short term Questions

Long Term Questions


Chapter 3: CPU Scheduling

  • CPU Scheduler,
  • Preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling.
  • Scheduling criteria – CPU utilization, Throughput, Turnaround time, Waiting time, Response time.
  • Scheduling Algorithms: First-Come-First-Serve, Shortest-Job-First, Priority Scheduling, Round-Robin.

Important Questions with their Answers of “CPU Scheduling”

  • MCQs and Fill in blanks
  • Short term Questions
  • Long Term Questions

Short Term Question of “Process Overview”

Ques 1 : What is Process and also, explain process state ?

Ques 2 : Write down the short on Process Control Block (PCB).

Ques 3 : Write down the short on Process Scheduling Queues.

Ques 4 : What is the difference between Scheduler and Dispatcher ?

Ques 5 : Explain, process scheduling ?


Ques 1 : What is Process and also, explain process state ?

Ans: Process : A process is an instance of a program in execution. The execution of a process must progress in a sequential fashion.

Process State : Process state are those states which tells the status of of the process. Status of the process includes whether the Process has Executed or Whether the process is Waiting for Some input and output from the user and whether the Process is Waiting for the CPU to Run the Program after the Completion of the Process.

A Process has a five States:-

  1. New State
  2. Ready State
  3. Waiting State
  4. Running State
  5. Terminated State

Ques 2 : Write down the short on Process Control Block (PCB).

Ans : A Process Control Block(PCB) is a data structure in a Operating System kernel that contains the information needed to keep track of a process. The information of the Process is used by the CPU at the Run time. The PCB is identified by an integer process ID(PID). The various information which is Stored into the PCB as followings:

Ques 3 : Write down the short on Process Scheduling Queues.

Ans : The OS maintains all PCBs in Process Scheduling Queues. The OS maintains a separate queue for each of the process states and PCBs of all processes in the same execution state are placed in the same queue. When the state of a process is changed, its PCB is unlinked from its current queue and moved to its new state queue.

The Operating System maintains the following important process scheduling queues −

  • Job queue − This queue keeps all the processes in the system.
  • Ready queue − This queue keeps a set of all processes residing in main memory, is ready and is waiting to execute. A new process is always put in this queue.
  • Device queues − The processes which are blocked due to unavailability of an I/O device constitute this queue.

Ques 4 : What is the difference between Scheduler and Dispatcher ?

Ans : The OS scheduler determines how to move processes between the ready and run queues which can only have one entry per processor core on the system, it has been merged with the CPU. The main task of scheduler is to select the jobs to be submitted into the system and to decide which process to run.

The dispatcher is the module that gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short-time scheduler(selects from among the processes that are ready to execute).

The main difference between scheduler and dispatcher is that the scheduler selects a process out of several processes to be executed while the dispatcher allocates the CPU for the selected process by the scheduler.

Ques 5 : Explain, process scheduling ?

Ans : The act of determining which process is in the ready state, and should be moved to the running state is known as Process Scheduling.

Process scheduling is the activity of the process manager that handles the removal of the running process from the CPU and the selection of another process on the basis of a particular strategy.

The prime aim of the process scheduling system is to keep the CPU busy all the time and to deliver minimum response time for all programs. For achieving this, the scheduler must apply appropriate rules for swapping processes IN and OUTof CPU.

Types of Process Scheduling: There are two types of scheduling:-

  1. Pre-emptive Scheduling
  2. Non Pre-emptive Scheduling

 


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‘Operating System’ Practical

  1. To install and configure MS Windows 7/8/10 on a computer
  2. To get familiar with general Windows commands – ECHO, CLS, DIR, TREE, MD, CD, TYPE, RD, DEL, MOVE, COPY , REN, ATTRIB, COLOR, DATE, TIME, ERASE, FIND, FC, MORE, CMD, PATH, SYSTEMINFO, SHUTDOWN, TASKLIST, TASKKILL, VER, VOL, CHKDSK
  3. To use wildcard characters for copying, moving, renaming, and deleting files and directories in a given hierarchical directory structure under Windows’s command prompt.
  4. To get familiar with windows control panel components.
  5. To use Windows backup and restore features.
  6. To get familiar with commonly used Windows PowerShell cmdlets like Get-ChildItem, GetContent, Get-Command, Get-Help, Clear-Host, Copy-Item, Move-Item, Remove-Item, Rename-Item, Get-Location, Set-Location, Write-Output, Get-Process, Stop-Process.
  7. To write scripts in Windows PowerShell to automate tasks.