Home » Operating System — Process Control Block (PCB)

Operating System

Chapter 1: Introduction to Operating System 

— Definition of Operating System.

— Evolution of operating systems – simple batch systems, multi-programmed batch systems, time sharing systems.

— Functions of an operating system

— Characteristics of Operating System

— Single user and multi-user operating systems

Open-source and closed-source operating systems.

Important Questions with their Answers of “Introduction to operating system”

— MCQs and Fill in Blanks

— Short term Questions

— Long Term Questions


Chapter 2: Process Overview

Definition of process, process states, process life cycle,

Process Control Block (PCB),

Process Scheduling – Scheduling queues,

Schedulers (short term, medium term and long term).

Dispatcher.

Context Switch.

Important Questions with their Answers of “Process Overview”

— MCQs and Fill in blanks

Short term Questions

Long Term Questions


Chapter 3: CPU Scheduling

  • CPU Scheduler,
  • Preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling.
  • Scheduling criteria – CPU utilization, Throughput, Turnaround time, Waiting time, Response time.
  • Scheduling Algorithms: First-Come-First-Serve, Shortest-Job-First, Priority Scheduling, Round-Robin.

Important Questions with their Answers of “CPU Scheduling”

  • MCQs and Fill in blanks
  • Short term Questions
  • Long Term Questions

Operating System — Process Control Block (PCB)


A Process Control Block(PCB) is a data structure in a Operating System kernel that contains the information needed to keep track of a process. The information of the Process is used by the CPU at the Run time. The PCB is identified by an integer process ID(PID). The various information which is Stored into the PCB as followings:

 

Sr. No.  Information  Description
1.  Process ID  This is a Identification Number which is given by the CPU when a Process Request for a Service.
2.  Process State  The current state of the process i.e., whether it is ready, running, waiting
3.  Process Privileges  This is required to allow/disallow access to system resources.
4.  Pointer  A pointer to parent process.
5.  Program Counter  Program Counter is a pointer to the address of the next instruction to be executed for this process.
6.  CPU Register  Various CPU registers where process need to be stored for execution for running state.
7.  IO status information  This includes a list of I/O devices allocated to the process.
8.  Memory management information  This includes the information of page table, memory limits, Segment table depending on memory used by the operating system.
9.  Accounting information  This includes the amount of CPU used for process execution, time limits, execution ID etc.
10. CPU Scheduling Information  Process priority and other scheduling information which is required to schedule the process.

 


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‘Operating System’ Practical

  1. To install and configure MS Windows 7/8/10 on a computer
  2. To get familiar with general Windows commands – ECHO, CLS, DIR, TREE, MD, CD, TYPE, RD, DEL, MOVE, COPY , REN, ATTRIB, COLOR, DATE, TIME, ERASE, FIND, FC, MORE, CMD, PATH, SYSTEMINFO, SHUTDOWN, TASKLIST, TASKKILL, VER, VOL, CHKDSK
  3. To use wildcard characters for copying, moving, renaming, and deleting files and directories in a given hierarchical directory structure under Windows’s command prompt.
  4. To get familiar with windows control panel components.
  5. To use Windows backup and restore features.
  6. To get familiar with commonly used Windows PowerShell cmdlets like Get-ChildItem, GetContent, Get-Command, Get-Help, Clear-Host, Copy-Item, Move-Item, Remove-Item, Rename-Item, Get-Location, Set-Location, Write-Output, Get-Process, Stop-Process.
  7. To write scripts in Windows PowerShell to automate tasks.