C is a programming language. C was developed by AT & T’s Bell Laboratories of USA in 1972. It was designed and written by Dennis Ritchie.
C is a general purpose language which has been closely associated with the Unix Operating System for which it was developed-since the system and most of the programs that run it are written in C.
Also, C combines the features of both high level and low level languages. It can be used for low-level programming, such as scripting for drivers and kernels and it also supports functions of high level programming languages, such as scripting for software applications etc.
C is a general-purpose, high-level language that was originally developed by Dennis M. Ritchie to develop the UNIX operating system at Bell Labs. C was originally first implemented on the DEC PDP-11 computer in 1972.
The UNIX operating system, the C compiler, and essentially all UNIX application programs have been written in C. C has now become a widely used professional language for various reasons:
- Easy to learn
- Structured language
- It produces efficient programs
- It can handle low-level activities
- It can be compiled on a variety of computer platforms
Why Use ‘C’?
C was initially used for system development work, particularly the programs that make-up the operating system. C was adopted as a system development language because it produces code that runs nearly as fast as the code written in assembly language. Some examples of the use of C:
- Operating Systems
- Language Compilers
- Text Editors
- Print Spoolers
- Network Drivers
- Modern Programs
- Language Interpreters
Applications of ‘C’
- C programming language can be used to design different types of application like designing the system software like OS & compiler.
- Designing the application software like database & spreadsheets.
- To design the graphics related applications, i.e., PC’s and mobile games.
- To evaluate the mathematical equations.
Features Of ‘C’
C language is one of the powerful languages. Below are some of the features of C language:
- Efficiency and Effectiveness
Advantages of ‘C‘
- Modularity: It is one of the important characteristics of C. we can split the C program into no. of modules instead of repeating the same logic statements (sequentially). It allows reusability of modules.
- Middle-level language: As a middle-level language C combines both the advantages of low level and high-level languages. (arrays, pointers, etc.).
- General purpose programming language: C can be used to implement any applications such as math’s oriented, graphics, business-oriented applications.
- Portability: We can compile or execute C program on any operating system (Unix, DOS, Windows).
- Powerful programming language: C is very efficient and powerful programming language, it is best used for data structures and designing system software. C is case sensitive language.
- Procedure Oriented Language: C Language is procedure-oriented language, here user creates procedures or functions to execute their task. Procedure-oriented language is very much easy to learn because it follows an algorithm to execute your statements.
- Lots of Libraries: C Language provides lots of functions which consist of system generated functions and user-defined functions. C Compiler comes with a list of header files which consist of many general functions which can be used to develop a program, while the programmer can also create function as per their requirements that is called as user-generated/defined function.
- Speed of Compilation: C compiler produces machine code very fast compared to other language compilers. C compiler can compile around 1000 lines of code in a second or two. One more benefit of the C-Compiler is that it also optimize the code for faster execution.
- Easy to Learn: C Language syntax is very easy to understand. It uses a keyword like if, else, goto, switch, main, etc. This kind of keyword we all are using in our day to day life to convey meaning or to get some decisions.
- Portable: C Language setup is around 3-5 MB. So you can carry this language in your Floppy Drive or Pen Drive. It is very easy to install and operate, Again its output is an .exe file which can be executed in any computer without any other framework/ software.
Disadvantages Of ‘C’
- Object Oriented Programming Features (OOPS): Object Oriented Programming Features is missing in C Language, You have to develop your program using procedure-oriented language only.
- Run Time Type Checking is Not Available: In C Language, there is no provision for run-time type checking, for example, I am passing float value while receiving parameter is of integer type then the value will be changed, it will not give any error message.
- Namespace Feature: C does not provide namespace features, so you can’t be able to use the same variable name again in one scope. If namespace features is available, then you can able to reuse the same variable name.
- Constructor and Destructor is not available: C does not provide object-oriented features, so it doesn’t have Constructor and Destructor features. Constructor and Destructor is used to construct an object and destroy an object. So in C Language, you have to implement the construction and destruction of the variable manually, using a function or by other means.