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Operating System

Chapter 1: Introduction to Operating System 

— Definition of Operating System.

— Evolution of operating systems – simple batch systems, multi-programmed batch systems, time sharing systems.

— Functions of an operating system

— Characteristics of Operating System

— Single user and multi-user operating systems

Open-source and closed-source operating systems.

Important Questions with their Answers of “Introduction to operating system”

— MCQs and Fill in Blanks

— Short term Questions

— Long Term Questions


Chapter 2: Process Overview

Definition of process, process states, process life cycle,

Process Control Block (PCB),

Process Scheduling – Scheduling queues,

Schedulers (short term, medium term and long term).

Dispatcher.

Context Switch.

Important Questions with their Answers of “Process Overview”

— MCQs and Fill in blanks

Short term Questions

Long Term Questions


Chapter 3: CPU Scheduling

  • CPU Scheduler,
  • Preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling.
  • Scheduling criteria – CPU utilization, Throughput, Turnaround time, Waiting time, Response time.
  • Scheduling Algorithms: First-Come-First-Serve, Shortest-Job-First, Priority Scheduling, Round-Robin.

Important Questions with their Answers of “CPU Scheduling”

  • MCQs and Fill in blanks
  • Short term Questions
  • Long Term Questions

Functions of an operating system

Operating System is a system software that act as a interface between user and computer hardware.

Function of Operating System: The various function of Operating System are as given below:

  1. Memory Management.
  2. Processor Management.
  3. Device Management.
  4. File Management.
  5. Secondary Storage Management.
  6. Security and Protection.
  7. Network Management.
  8. Control Over Performance.
  9. Error-Detecting.
  10. Coordination between other software and users

  1. Memory Management:
  • The operating system manages and keep track the Primary Memory or Main Memory.
  • Allocates the memory to a process when requests by it.
  • De-allocates the memory when a process has been terminated or it is performing I/O operation.
  • In multi-programming, it decides which process will get memory when and how much.
  1. Processor Management:
  • Keep tracks of processor and status of process. Program that does this is called traffic controller.
  • In multi-programming it decides which process get the processor when and how much time. This function is called process scheduling.
  • Allocate the processor (CPU) to a process.
  • De-allocate processor when processor is no longer required.
  1. Device Management:
  • It keeps track of all the peripherals devices.
  • It decides which process gets the device when and for how much time.
  • Allocates the device in the effective and efficient way.
  • De-allocates devices when not required.
  1. File Management:
  • It keeps track of information, location, uses, status and many more. The collective facilities are known as file system.
  • Decides who gets the resources and for how much long time.
  • Allocates the resources and de-allocates them when required.
  1. Secondary Storage Management:
  • Main memory as a limited size and it is volatile i.e. it loses its contents as soon as power turns off. The operating system performs following function in regard to secondary storage management.
  • Scheduling the requests for memory access i.e. Disk scheduling.
  • Creation and deletion of files.
  1. Security and Protection:
  • It provide password protection to user data, operating system prevents unauthorized access to programs and data of user.
  • It provides the security by encryption and decryption.
  1. Network Management:
  • An operating system works as a network resource manger when multiple computers are in a network.
  1. Control Over Performance:
  • Recording delays between request for a service and response from the system.
  1. Error-Detecting:
  • It detects production of dumps, traces, error messages and other debugging and error-detecting aids.
  • Operating system constantly monitor the system for detecting the error to avoid malfunctioning of computer system.
  1. Coordination between other resource and user:
  • Operating system also perform coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems.

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‘Operating System’ Practical

  1. To install and configure MS Windows 7/8/10 on a computer
  2. To get familiar with general Windows commands – ECHO, CLS, DIR, TREE, MD, CD, TYPE, RD, DEL, MOVE, COPY , REN, ATTRIB, COLOR, DATE, TIME, ERASE, FIND, FC, MORE, CMD, PATH, SYSTEMINFO, SHUTDOWN, TASKLIST, TASKKILL, VER, VOL, CHKDSK
  3. To use wildcard characters for copying, moving, renaming, and deleting files and directories in a given hierarchical directory structure under Windows’s command prompt.
  4. To get familiar with windows control panel components.
  5. To use Windows backup and restore features.
  6. To get familiar with commonly used Windows PowerShell cmdlets like Get-ChildItem, GetContent, Get-Command, Get-Help, Clear-Host, Copy-Item, Move-Item, Remove-Item, Rename-Item, Get-Location, Set-Location, Write-Output, Get-Process, Stop-Process.
  7. To write scripts in Windows PowerShell to automate tasks.