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Computer Languages

computer language is a method of communication with a computer.

Just as humans use language to communicate, and there are different languages in different areas, computers also have their own languages which are specific to them.

Different types of languages have been developed to perform various types of work on computers.

Types of Computer Languages:

  1. High Level Language
  2. Machine Language
  3. Assembly Language

High Level Language:

  • A high level language are machine independent.
  • A high level language is a programming language, may be English-like.
  • Easy to use.
  • More portable across platforms.

Machine Language:

  • Machine languages are only languages understood by computers.
  • Machine languages are impossible to use and understand by the user or human being.
  • Programs written in high level languages are translated into assembly languages or machine languages by compiler or interpreter.
  • Every CPU has its own unique machine language. Programs must be rewritten or recompiled, to run on different types of computers.

Assembly Language:

  • Assembly language programs are translated into machine language by a program called an assembler.
  • Assembly language is one level above machine language. It uses short mnemonic codes for instructions and allows the programmer to introduce names for blocks of memory that hold data.
  • Assembly language is designed to be easily translated into machine language.

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‘C’ Practical

  1. To get fomiliar with the structure of a ‘C’ program and print “Hello World!” on computer screen.
  2. To perform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division operations on two integers.
  3. To use unformatted 1/0 functions (getchar() and putchar(), gets() and puts()).
  4. To use scanf() function to read integers (%d, %i, %o, %u, %x), characters (%c), floating point numbers (%f, %g, %e), strings (%s, scanset).
  5. To use printf() function to format and print output (%d, %i, %o, %u, %x, %e, %E, %f, %g, %c, %p, %c, %s, %n)
  6. To change width, precision and alignment of the output of printf().
  7. To perform and, or, not, exor, left-shift and right-shift operations on integers.
  8. To check whether a given integer is even or odd (if … else statement).
  9. To write month name corresponding to a month number (switch … case).
  10. To check whether a given integer is prime using while loop.
  11. To reverse the digits of a given positive integer using while loop.
  12. To generate the multiplication table of a given integer using for loop.
  13. To generate first n terms of Fibonacci series using do-while loop.
  14. To compute factorial of a given integer using for loop.
  15. To compute sum of elements of a one dimensional integer array.
  16. To find the largest element in a one dimensional array.
  17. To perform matrix addition and matrix multiplication using 2-D arrays.
  18. To convert the alphabetic characters of a string to uppercase.
  19. To find the length of a string.
  20. To use Standard Library String Functions (strcat(), strrev(), strcp(), strcmp())
  21. Writing a function to find sum of two integers.
  22. Writing a function to swap value of two integers (call by reference).
  23. Writing a function to compute factorial of a given integer (using recursion).
  24. To read and print multiple data items (roll_no, name, branch, semester etc.) pertaining to an individual student.
  25. Demonstrating the use of union
  26. Demonstrating the use of address and dereferencing operators
  27. Performing pointer arithmetic to manipulate an array
  28. To read the contents from a file and display it on screen
  29. To read names and addresss of persons and write them into a file.
  30. Write a program to read the contents of two different files and write it into the third file.